نظریه 7S مک کینزی
Origin of the 7-S Framework. History
The 7-S Framework was first mentioned in "The Art Of Japanese Management" by Richard Pascale and Anthony Athos in 1981. They had been investigating how Japanese industry had been so successful. At around the same time that Tom Peters and Robert Waterman were exploring what made a company excellent. The Seven S model was born at a meeting of these four authors in 1978. It appeared also in "In Search of Excellence" by Peters and Waterman, and was taken up as a basic tool by the global management consultancy company McKinsey. Since then it is known as their 7-S model.
The meaning of the 7 Ss
McKinsey 7-S frameworkShared Values (also called Superordinate Goals).
The interconnecting center of McKinsey's model is: Shared Values. What does the organization stands for and what it believes in. Central beliefs and attitudes.
Plans for the allocation of a firms scarce resources, over time, to reach identified goals. Environment, competition, customers.
The way in which the organization's units relate to each other: centralized, functional divisions (top-down); decentralized; a matrix, a network, a holding, etc.
The procedures, processes and routines that characterize how the work should be done: financial systems; recruiting, promotion and performance appraisal systems; information systems.
Numbers and types of personnel within the organization.
Cultural style of the organization and how key managers behave in achieving the organization's goals.
Distinctive capabilities of personnel or of the organization as a whole.
Strengths of the 7-S Model. Benefits
* Diagnostic tool for understanding organizations that are ineffective.
* Guides organizational change.
* Combines rational and hard elements with emotional and soft elements.
* Managers must act on all Ss in parallel and all Ss are interrelated.
Book: Ethan M. Rasiel, Paul N. Friga - The McKinsey Mind: Understanding and Implementing the Problem Solving Tools and Management Techniques