Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg
According to the Two Factor Theory of Frederick Herzberg people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction and psychological growth are a result factor of motivation factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene factors. Herzberg developed this motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.
The two Factors in the Theory
* Hygiene factors are needed to ensure that an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not cause higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.
* Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.
Typical Hygiene Factors
*Quality of supervision
*Company policies and administration
Typical Motivation Factors
*Recognition for achievement
*Responsibility for task
*Advancement to higher level tasks
Combining the hygiene and motivation factors results in four scenario's
*High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated and have few complaints.
*High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly motivated. The job is perceived as a paycheck.
*Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A situation where the job is exciting and challenging. However the salaries and work conditions are not OK.
*Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: The worst situation. Employees are not motivated and have lots of complaints.
Herzberg suggests that often work can be arranged and should be arranged in the following ways:
* job enlargement
* job rotation, and/or
* job enrichment.
Besides The Two Factor Theory, Frederick Herzberg is also known for his acronym KITA, which has been politely translated as a Kick In The Pants! Herzberg said that KITA does not produce motivation. But only movement.
موضوع مطلب : مدیریت منابع انسانی